The Early Years of the Tongues Movement
"How Pentecost Came to Los Angeles"
Frank Bartleman, writer of the book with the above title,
is the most engaging personality we have met in our study of the events before
us. He was a man of God beyond many, devoted to Christ and His cause, an
evangelist most eager to see sinners saved, and ready for every sacrifice. His
prayer-life was intense, even intemperate, accompanied by fasting to excess, to
the serious depletion of health. He was a servant ready to trust his Master.
Though unsupported by any Church or Society it was his fixed rule never to
mention to man his temporal needs, or to hint at financial questions, even when
penniless and without food for his family. His wife was heartily with him in
this and accepted privation when God tested their faith, as He always tests it,
and they rejoiced together in the marked deliverances with which faith is
rewarded. In 1910-1911 he travelled for eleven months, visiting 17 countries
between England and Japan, returning via the Pacific.
He writes: I did not carry a single dollar with me from Los Angeles. My family trusted God fully and were better cared for than they had ever been while I was with them. I returned with about one dollar in my pocket. My wife had fifty dollars in bank. "Faithful is He who calleth you, who also will do it." In a wonderful way the Lord preserved me from sickness. [Happily it was not yet the time when Governments insist on poisoning travellers with powerful drugs which can do as much damage as the diseases they prevent.]. I passed through cholera, plague, and smallpox districts and exposure, and through fever sections at the most deadly time of the year. But the Lord preserved me. I came home weighing ten pounds heavier than I had weighed for years. My family had been kept in fair health during my absence, and with plenty for their temporal needs. I never asked for a penny nor a collection. All was given me voluntarily. I only received fifty dollars from America after leaving her shores. In Palestine, India, and China, help came from the most unexpected and unlikely sources. God proved He could provide abroad as well as at home. I reached China with only ten dollars. No money came from America to me there.
The writer does not show whether he knew that eighty years before A. N. Groves had set the modern example of serving the Lord on this, the apostolic plan, or whether he had heard of George Müller of Bristol. Certainly he did not know that at the very same period (1910, 1911) the present writer was on a tour of over two years in India, Burma, Egypt, Tunisia, and Switzerland, similarly waiting upon God alone for money and having the like experience of testings and miraculous supplies. This life of practical trust in God is not to be attributed to the Movement, for Bartleman was walking this path before the latter commenced.
Bartlemans testimony is commended to the attention of many today who profess to follow the same path but who really have one eye on some organization or fund. Such send reports to magazines, or issue circular letters to keep themselves before friends, which circulars often of late bear the names of the writers wife, and of Susan, John, Mary, and the baby. It will be healthy for the soul and good for their work when days come in which magazines, lists of workers, and circulars are no more available. Workers will then discover whether they are spiritually as far advanced as the saint of the former dispensation who wrote: "My soul waiteth only upon God: From Him cometh my salvation. He only is my rock My soul, wait thou only upon God, For my expectation is from Him. He only is my rock" (Ps. 62:16). The evil in view is, of course, not new. Spurgeon somewhere said that some evangelists could not kill a mouse but that they must announce the feat in the Gospel Magazine: whereas Samson killed a lion and said nothing about it!
Living thus, this dear brother Bartleman was free from bondage to man and control by his brethren. He could learn more of the mind of Christ and could practice what he learned. One very important thing that be saw was that control by man of gatherings of Christians, and the imposing of human order, are denial of the right of the Spirit of God and restrain His gracious activity in the saints. He felt that the formal ordering of public worship was a severe and constant hindrance to such a working of the Spirit as he longed and prayed to see. And he presently learned of the ceasing of the 19045 revival in Wales when ministerial control was reinforced, and shortly he saw the blight of human rule and order quench the Movement in Los Angeles.
In the earliest days of that Movement there were no arranged speakers or pre-announcing of subjects, and the singing was equally spontaneous. Old well-known hymns were used from memory. A fresh feature that developed was "heavenly singing," without words or else in tongues. Of this he says, "they finally began to despise this gift when the human spirit asserted itself again. They drove it out by hymnbooks, and selected songs by leaders. It was like murdering the Spirit, and most painful to some of us, but the tide was too strong against us." And then he adds these pungent remarks: "Hymnbooks today  are largely a commercial proposition, and we would not lose much without most of them. The old tunes, even, are violated by change, and new styles must be gotten out every season, for added profit. There is very little real spirit of worship in them. They move the toes, but not the hearts of men" (57).
Bartlemans narrative begins with his arrival at Los Angeles on December 22, 1904. On April 8, 1905, he heard F. B. Meyer describe the then awakening in Wales. This stirred him deeply. He commenced to distribute accounts of it by S. B. Shaw and Campbell Morgan. These helped to stir desire and expectancy in many hearts. He and Evan Roberts exchanged some letters. In measure the Los Angeles Movement arose out of the movement in Wales, the more so in that a Los Angeles pastor named Smale had visited Wales and had returned with some quickening. There being in the Churches and Missions but little spiritual liberty, a few earnest people met for prayer in a cottage, 214 Bonnie Brae Street, Los Angeles. On April 9, 1906, a member spoke in tongues. On Sunday morning, April 15, at the New Testament Church, Burbank Hall, a coloured sister spoke in tongues. When these things were noised abroad, the crowds came together. The meetings were removed to 312 Asuza Street. This had been a Methodist Church but was now a lumber store. Enough space was cleared of dirt and debris to lay planks on top of empty nail kegs, to seat possibly thirty persons. They were arranged in a square facing one another. Intense excitement arose, augmented by some temporary concern in souls caused by the mighty earthquake which began on April 19, through which some ten thousand people were killed. The building was soon packed, tongues were frequent, the "heavenly choir" was heard often, men and women flocked in dozens to the "altar," meetings went on continuously, almost round the clock. "Someone might he speaking. Suddenly the Spirit would fall upon the congregation. God himself would give the altar call. Men would fall all over the house, like the slain in battle, or rush for the altar en masse, to seek God" (60).
The supernatural force concentrated in this humble building was so intense as to surcharge the immediate neighbourhood, so that persons approaching would fall under its grip while still a block or two away. Others who had come to the city to investigate were "baptized" where they were lodging. They had come from all parts of the earth and returned to their spheres so charged with the energy operating that through their testimonies and appeals similar scenes were re-enacted.
Before long the Movement became world-wide. Its leaders were very confident that it would cover the earth and continue until the coming of the Lord. Those who participated were possessed by an unquestioning conviction that the power acting was that of the Holy Spirit of God. This assurance breathes instinctively in the hundreds of testimonies published in the magazine "Confidence." The uniformity of description of the experiences is striking, acceptance of the Divine source of it is invariable, and might easily overwhelm the incautious reader into acquiescence, as it did so many thousands of readers and beholders. And yet? When a cautious inquirer, even though well-disposed to the supernatural and ready to accept its manifestations, ponders many details as given by participants and believers in them, questions will clamour for answer. The literature reveals an almost childlike innocence in the acceptance of the view that the experiences were given by God. None seem to have at all doubted this. It was just taken for granted. They had sought earnestly for revival, and surely here it was! Would God give stones to those who had asked for bread? But the majority in those early days seem not to have heeded the exhortation of Paul that his readers, as wise men, were to judge what even he, the apostle, said (1 Cor. 10:15). Apparently they were not warned by Johns explicit statement that many false prophets were clamouring to be heard and therefore every spirit must be tested (1 John 4:1).
Later in the Movement a few leaders gave such warnings, but not it would seem to much purpose. This habit of mind is dangerous, for it makes easy the work of deceiving spirits and false prophets. There were leaders, of whom Bartleman was one, who recognized that evil spirits might counterfeit the work of the Holy Spirit; but have not read that any one of them scrutinized his own "baptism" and tongues, or doubted the Divine origin of this exercise or of the healings of the body that took place. A line of truth was pressed to an extreme and furthered the tendency not to exercise the judgment as to these experiences. Bartleman describes the occasion when first he spoke in an unknown tongue, and says: I was truly "sealed in the forehead... ceasing from the works of my own natural mind fully My mind, the last fortress of men to yield, was taken possession of by the Spirit My mind had always been very active Nothing hinders faith and the operation of the Spirit so much as the self-assertiveness of the human spirit, the wisdom, strength and self-sufficiency of the human mind. This must all be crucified, and here is where the fight comes in "(72).
There is here a point of importance, even that the inner man of the heart must he brought into subjection to the Spirit of God: but that the powers of the human mind "must all be crucified" simply puts the man off his proper defence, so as to accept whatever is urged by an extraneous power, whatever that power may be. It was to the same effect that an Archdeacon, speaking of his "baptism," said "If I might add a word of caution from experience, it would be to use the greatest care to keep ones head out of the way. It is not by way of ones head so much as by way of ones heart that the Holy Ghost loves to enter." (Confidence, Dec. 1908, 13). Here again is an element of truth. It is certain that with too many believers it is principally a mental knowledge that is gained while the affections remain little moved toward Christ. Yet an experience that is mainly emotional, the feelings stirred though intelligence be meagre, will leave open the door to false emotionalism and to the mind being misled by false ideas. Speakers in that period laid much stress on Rom. 6:6: "Your old man was crucified with Him." It was well urged that the anointing of the Spirit could not be put upon the old sinful nature but only upon Christ developed in the believer. Mrs. Boddy was urgent in pressing this truth. But the psychology was faulty. The term "the old man" points to the moral nature, which is incurably corrupt and must be held in death, so that the resurrection of Christ may animate the Christian by faith. But this moral nature is not the intellect, the mind, as a faculty, but the false perverting influence that blinds the mind. This moral nature must die with Christ by faith, and the mind be thus liberated and renewed; but this does not mean that the intellect itself, as a faculty, must die and cease to operate, so putting the judgment into abeyance on matters spiritual.
When it is a question of testimony to ordinary events there may be little need to test the competency of the speaker; but when a man talks upon one of the more recondite facts and problems of some science it is necessary to learn that he is competent to speak upon the subject. Even so it is needful to consider whether those who testify to supernatural events are reliable as witnesses. In the present case a particular feature is noticeable. The literature before me gives photographs of quite a number of men and women connected with the Movement in the early years. They divide into two main classes: those whose eyes have the dreamy faraway look of the gentle, sentimental nature, and those whose eyes glitter, are restless, intense. Only few faces show a normal, placid, controlled spirit. Neither of the two former classes can be relied upon to form a sober, tested judgment upon exciting experiences. One who knew Mr. A. A. Boddy as a preacher in those early days has described to me his preaching as "emotional." His photo confirms this. One who knew the leader in India of that time, named Moorhead, tells me he was erratic." The judgement of such is usually hasty, as we shall shortly have occasion to see.
At the time of the Los Angeles manifestations Frank Bartleman was aged thirty-four. His photo shows a sweet, intense nature of the first type mentioned, that of a man likely to be too easily moved and carried away. An instance can be given. It concerns a Mr and Mrs A. G. Garr. He says: I preached at Fifth Street Mission, where the "Burning Bush" had gotten control They were going wild (6) The Burning Bush "had spoiled the spirit of the saints greatly in San Diego. It had made them harsh and hard. There was little love, but much strife and contention" (31)... [Later] Brother and Sister Garr closed "the Burning Bush" hall, came to Asuza, received the "baptism," and were soon on the way to India to spread the fire (54); And in February 1911 he wrote warmly of them in China, whither they had gone on from India. Here is a rapid change of judgment about these friends. Before they went to Asuza their work was "going wild," making saints "harsh and hard," "breeding strife and contention," but when they had fallen under the Asuza spell they are at once commended and encouraged.
Now the "Good Report," the Los Angeles organ of the Movement, in its issue for June 1913, gave a large portrait of these friends. Mrs. Garr has a sweet, pensive face of the first type described, but her husbands expression is fierce, aggressive, bellicose, with no trace of the meekness and gentleness of Christ, though he was supposed to have received so recently a special baptism in the Spirit of Christ. There will be occasion later to learn that Bartlemans estimate of him showed a defect in judgment and that the spirit that made people harsh and hard was still dominant in him. This same lack of balance can be seen in another feature of this excellent man. He was liable to violent illnesses, dangerous and painful, associated with chronic neurasthenia, the result of excessive efforts. His children had attacks of convulsions and other conditions inherited from their neurotic father. He frequently mentions these factors, and of every sickness he declares that it was the devil trying to kill him and them. This was unfair to the devil for all neurasthenics are liable to such attacks without Satanic action. It belongs to the condition. But not only was his reasoning and judgment at fault as 6 5might naturally follow from his mind having been "crucified" but regularly he says that prayer was made and that the Lord delivered him or the children. Yet the steady recurrence and intensifying of the attacks makes clear that there was nothing more than that cessation of the violence of the pains known with severe neuralgic spasms, with no plain indications of distinct Divine healing action. That the Lord supported the spirit of His dear servant under the strain would certainly be the case, but that is not direct healing of the body.
But his failure of judgment as to his own case and that of his children. On the part of so godly a brother and so prominent a leader, naturally raises the question as to whether the same feature obtained in many other cases of sickness and healing of those days. The point is of importance, because the records in "Confidence" indicate that after a few years the matter of "tongues" lost its early prominence and that of "healings" came to the front. The most remarkable instance is that of one Smith Wigglesworth. "Confidence" gives many reports about him and by him, and, if only half the cases of healing be accepted, he came not a whit behind the very chiefest Apostles as a healer. It is by no means suggested that there were no genuine instances of Divine healing. There may have been many, for where faith presented itself to the Lord He, of course, would respond. Only it must be remembered that though Peter healed very many sick folk, and even raised the dead (and several alleged raisings of the dead are given in "Confidence"), that did not imply the Lords endorsement of all that Peter said and did, such as his rebuke of Christ (Matt. 16) or his lapse at Antioch (Gal. 2:1118) Neither would abundance of cases of the sick being healed prove of itself that accompanying "tongues" and "prophesyings" were of God. Healings take place among sundry false cults such, for example, as Christian Science. Our present question is whether with many healers and many healed there may have been the same deficiency of knowledge and the like defect of judgment as with Frank Bartleman, and much have been ranked as Divine healing without being really such. Just as Bartleman saw an attack of the devil in every attack of sickness, so it seems did Smith Wigglesworth regard all sickness as directly from the devil and he would curse the demon and command him to depart. It seems scarcely of Christ that his messenger should curse any one, even a demon. The exhortation to the Christian is "Bless, and curse not" (Rom. 12:14), and though one could not bless a demon, neither should one curse him (Jude 9. Zech. 3:1, 2). But in many cases, especially of neurotic types, such daring, dramatic action would be a likely way to startle, arouse, and benefit the sufferer. It would have been of value had some competent person examined some of the more striking instances and formed an opinion upon this aspect. Lapse of time now precludes this or learning as to the permanence of the cures.
In 1955 a dear man well in middle life, who was for thirty years a "pastor" in the Movement and is still a firm adherent narrated to me at length his own remarkable healing by the Lord (as he believed) when he was a young man. He was taken with violent abdominal pain, but determined that he would trust the Lord only for healing. The doctor called by his parents he sent away, and for six terrible weeks he struggled on, claiming healing and deliverance on the ground of the Blood of Christ. Abatement came at length, he vomited some black clots, and gradually regained strength. So little did he know of sickness that he had all along supposed it was appendicitis, until I told him that the appendix was on the other side of the body. There is I suppose, little doubt that it was a gastric ulcer, which took a natural course and reached a natural end, nor was there any sign whatever of supernatural intervention. Yet all these years the dear man in his innocence had regarded and narrated this as a gracious instance of Divine healing.
And many cases are on record in which recovery was more or less slow and seemingly natural. We do well to give God thanks when we pull through and recover health, but to proclaim these as instances of direct Divine action argues that lack of knowledge and judgment here before us. But seeing that in such physical matters the judgment of good Christians could either err or be in abeyance, may it not have been so as regards the more difficult and distinctly spiritual matters they shared? We have quoted Bartlemans account of how at Asuza the Spirit would fall suddenly and men would drop to the ground all over the house, or rush in crowds to the front, till the place was like a forest of fallen trees. Many would talk in tongues together, though this is plainly contrary to Scripture.
Curious things are described. Brother Seymour [a coloured brother, a godly man] was recognized as the nominal leader in charge Brother Seymour generally sat behind two empty shoe boxes, one on top of the other. He usually kept his head inside of the top one during the meetings, in prayer (58). A singular spectacle this the leader with his head hidden in a box while the fire of excitement blazed and roared around him. We wanted God. When we first reached the meeting we avoided as much as possible human contact and greeting. We wanted to meet God first. We got our head under some bench in the corner in prayer, and met men only in the Spirit, knowing them " after the flesh" no more (59).
Here again are excellencies and eccentricities. To come to meet God, to avoid merely human contacts good indeed but why get ones head under a bench? Why hide ones head in a box? Another feature provokes inquiry. We had a "tarrying" room upstairs, for those especially seeking God for the "baptism," though many got it in the main assembly room also. In fact they often got it in their seats in those days. On the wall of the tarrying room was hung a placard with the words, "No talking above a whisper." We knew nothing of jazzing them through at that time (55) Our so called tarrying and prayer rooms today [l925] are but a shadow of the former ones, too often a place to blow off steam in human enthusiasm, or become mentally intoxicated supposedly from the Holy Ghost. Many of them are a kind of lethal chamber with very little of the pure Spirit of God (81)
Thus there were two apartments, greatly in contrast. One retired and quiet, where God could be sought in stillness the other marked by crowds, excitement, movement, noise. Which of these was according to God? Apparently it made little difference, for people were "baptized " in both some finding the gift by quiet seeking, others while sitting in the public and restless meeting. Here is another strange scene from the public meeting. Brother Ansell Post, a Baptist preacher, was sitting on a chair the middle of the floor one evening in the meeting. Suddenly the Spirit fell upon him. He sprang from his chair began to praise God in a loud voice in "tongues," and ran all over the place, hugging all the brethren he could get hold of. He was filled with divine love. He later went to Egypt as a missionary (61). That some spirit urged the dear man seems certain but it is hard to believe that the Spirit of God, who commands and produces decency and order in public, provoked a preacher to rush about the assembly, shouting in a strange tongue that edified no one, and seizing and hugging the men folk. But Bartleman had no doubt it was the Holy Spirit, which suggests a judgment faulty and unreliable.
Again: At the New Testament Church a young lady of refinement was prostrate on the floor for hours, while at times the most heavenly singing would issue from her lips All over the house men and women were weeping. A preacher was flat on his face on the floor, crying out. " Pentecost has fully come" (61). It is safe to say that if at Pentecost of old any Oriental young woman had been stretched on the floor for hours in the presence of men, and singing, it would have been impossible to convince people that the Spirit of the Holy One (of Israel) was the cause of this. Or again, of another centre in Los Angeles in the same opening year, 1906, we read: The atmosphere at Eighth and Maple was for a time even deeper than at "Asuza." God came so wonderfully near us, the very atmosphere of heaven seemed to surround us. Such a divine "weight of glory" was upon us we could only lie on our faces. For a long time we could hardly remain seated even. All would be on their faces on the floor, sometimes during the whole service. I was seldom able to keep from lying full length on the floor on my face. There was a little raise of about a foot, for a platform, when we moved into the church. On this I generally lay, while God ran the meetings (69).
Once more, in 1908 in Indianapolis: At one meeting when I was through the slain of the Lord lay all over the floor. I looked for the preachers behind me and they lay stretched out on the floor too. One of them had his feet tangled up in a chair, so I knew they had gone down under the power of God. I stepped over near the piano, among the people. My body began to rock under the power of God and I fell over on to the piano and lay there. It was a cyclic manifestation of the power of God (122). These scenes from the first days, when the power acting was working most energetically and pervading the Movement, were given by this chief and godly leader as displaying what characterized those days and proved to him that Pentecost had been renewed and the ever-blessed Spirit had fallen afresh.
The reader must judge for himself whether this is sufficiently proved by a preacher lying on the platform before the audience with "his feet tangled up in a chair" and by another "falling over on to the piano and lying there." Is there any parallel to such scenes in the Acts of the Apostles? This good man makes prominent another feature concerning himself, which has a lesson and a warning. It refers to his health, already mentioned.  My nerves had been worn threadbare from years of previous pioneer mission work My back was my weak spot (10) I have always worked harder than my natural strength reasonably allowed (13).  My life was by this time literally swallowed up in prayer. I was praying day and night (18) We prayed for a spirit of revival for Pasadena until the burden became well-nigh unbearable. I cried out like a woman in birth pangs (19) I had an awful attack of neuralgia of the stomach. I felt I would die. I fasted and prayed a whole day and night and the lord delivered. (26) [brother Boehmer, a gardener] spent several hours in prayer We often spent whole nights together in prayer during those days. It seemed a great privilege to spend a whole night with the Lord. He drew so near. We never seemed to get weary on such occasions (33) The spirit of prayer came more and more heavily upon us I would lie on my bed in the daytime and roll and groan under the burden. I fasted much, not caring for food when burdened. At one time I was in soul travail for nearly twenty four hours without intermission. It nearly used me up. Prayer literally consumed me. I would groan all night in my sleep (35) I had a blessed weeping burden for a number of days. I had such a burden one night I could not sleep (40). I spent another all night of prayer with Brother Boehmer. My nerves were getting very worn from constant conflict in prayer with the pow-ers of darkness (42).  I then began to stay at home more to rest and recuperate. I had written much, attended meetings constantly, besides going through the terrific siege of prayer both before and after the outpouring, so that my nerves were completely exhausted. I could hardly contemplate the writing of an ordinary postcard without mental agony at this time I can sympathize with Evan Roberts nervous breakdown after the revival in Wales (92).
Readers of my pamphlets "Praying is Working" and "Prayer Focused and Fighting" will be aware that the Lord taught me something of the need and power of prayer conflict. I have experienced the strain and the blessed effects of prayer, and of some fasting. But is it of God, is it a necessity in the world of spirits, that servants of Christ should disable themselves from the wars of the Lord by such extreme and sustained pressure as induces nervous exhaustion and mental collapse? The histories of the Bible offer no instance of it. The closing letters of Paul and Peter and John show no brain fag, but are as vigorous as their early writing and preaching, and they were old men. But the above pathetic extracts are from a man only thirty-four to thirty-six years of age. The first photo in his hook shows eyes already with signs of weariness, and his portrait of only nineteen years later gives a man of only fifty three years yet prematurely aged, gaunt and grey, with knitted brow and strained eyes.
One can respect the zeal and revere the devotion, but question the wisdom, or want of wisdom. And in all spheres such early exhaustion is seen in servants of Christ, with often premature death and consequent weakening of the armies of the Lord. And for the purpose of our present inquiry it is to be pondered that a brain thus wearied means a reduced power of reflection and discernment, with a proportionate liability to unrecognized adverse influence by the powers of darkness. So devoted a disciple as Simon Peter had not the least notion that it was from Satan there had come a false idea. Skilfully mingled with a genuine desire for his Masters welfare (Matt. 16:2223). Simon was not a worn-out man: much more will the exhausted disciple be open to such harmful influence. This leads to the observation that in the Movement before us there was plainly a deep mixture of what was of God and what was not of Him. Many who joined early in the Movement and received the "baptism" were already serious and instructed Christians. They held firmly the great truths of the faith, loved Christ, sought to bring sinners to Him, looked for His return. The entrance into their hearts and lives of the fresh elements the "baptism" brought did not affect this earlier stock of knowledge and experience, and when the new stimulus came these believers went forth and still preached salvation by the atoning blood, sanctification by the Spirit and much else that was godly and helpful.
Nor need one doubt that some sincere longers after Gods fullness were met by Him in grace, irrespective of what in the meetings was not of Him, and there received a fullness of Holy Spirit not known before. Also it is quite believable that the truly expectant found healing of the body. All this would call forth praise to His holy name. Whatever features can be paralleled in the New Testament should be received gratefully. But when it is urged that these features prove that the "tongues", "prophecies", "ecstasies", "visions", were of God, then must be kept in mind the mixed condition above indicated. And these startling additional experiences must be tested, lest anything false has commingled with the truth. This necessary scrutiny was too much neglected, and, moreover some had become disqualified for exercising it by causes above suggested.
A Movement cannot be tested by those features which it has in common with other Christians or bodies of Christians but only by the features peculiar to itself. Adherence to true doctrine, love for Christ, zeal in spreading the gospel, and similar conditions were not first generated in this Movement; they are found in equal vigour where no supernatural gifts have been claimed, and cannot therefore be a guarantee that the latter are from God. It may not be so. This examination of the first days of the Movement raises grave doubts as to this with regard to the Movement as a whole, which doubt is confirmed when details are examined.
One further matter deserves special mention because it provides a test in some other vital questions. From the very first, and throughout all the early years, there was persistent assertion that the second advent of Christ was just at hand. From 1911 to 1917 there was given on the first page of "Confidence" a brief summary of doctrines believed, which included "the soon-coming of the Lord." This imminency was emphasized in addresses, reports, and letters, so that few pages of that magazine are without such a statement. This erroneous expectation has been entertained by very many outside the Movement, but the difference is that these believers generally set forth the view as no more than their opinion of the meaning of Scripture, whereas in the Movement it was announced as a Divine communication. In "tongues," interpretations, prophecies, and visions it was iterated and reiterated, as, for example, when in a vision of Christ He was reported to have said He was coming soon and they were to tell people this. It is evident that the Lord never made this misstatement. Fifty years have passed and He is not here.
It follows that the visions, tongues. and prophecies which contained these unfounded statements were either not inspired at all, but were entirely the utterances of the natural mind, or else they were inspired by lying spirits. Many of the utterances were quite precise, as that the Lord will come "this year" or within two years, or that this may be the last winter before He comes. Few speaking from their own mind would be thus daring; it suggests an outside foreign source or impulse, but this source could not have been the Spirit of truth. This false prediction was so constant, so emphatic, so universal as to constitute a major feature of the whole Movement from its start, which forces serious doubt as to the energy animating it.
Quite apart from this Movement there is something startling, almost sinister, in the way this false hope has seized vast numbers of truly godly persons. It has been fostered by the equally unwarranted assertion that the apostles and the early church expected the Lord to return at any time so ought we not to cherish the same hope? Yet it is abundantly clear that the first generation of Christians knew that Christ would not return in their day certainly not till after Peter should have grown old and died (John 21:1823). The Lord had specifically warned the apostles against this very idea, saying. "Take heed that no one lead you astray for the end is not yet, not immediately" (Matt. 24:36; Luke 21:79). And Paul distinctly contemplated that false spirits and even forged letters would seek to make Christians think that the day of the Lord was already come (2 Thess. 2:14). The indulging of this false hope, ever disproved from generation to generation, has served to bring into disrepute the whole theme of the second Advent, which has served well the scheme of the powers of darkness. It is regrettable that the Movement here in view served their ends in this particular. It raises the whole question of the origin of the supernatural element in the Movement, seeing that the error was inculcated by persistent utterances alleged to have been given by supernatural agency. If the power was supernatural, then it was evil otherwise the utterances were not supernatural as was claimed, and then the Movement from its beginning largely loses its supernatural character as regards its two most distinctive features of tongues and prophecies. Yet without some supernatural agency it will be hard to account for much that undoubtedly took place as recorded by this evidently honest witness, Frank Bartleman. His book bears the impress of complete sincerity, and he was esteemed by the contemporary actors in these events, as is shown by several cordial references to him in "Confidence."
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