Pauls's Epistle to the
Preface and Chapter One
DURING his ministry Dr. Candlish delivered courses of
Expository Lectures on various portions of Scripture; being in the habit of
lecturing at the forenoon service on Sabbath. Those on Genesis, First John,
Romans xii, and First Corinthians xv., were published by himself. None of the
other courses, however, was left in a state such as to warrant publication,
except the lectures on the latter part of Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians,
which were written and delivered at intervals during the years 1863-9. Part of
this series was published in 1871, in a little volume entitled "The Relative
Duties of Home Life." It has been thought proper now to publish the whole
series, along with a few sermons on texts in the earlier or doctrinal part of
the Epistle, which seemed to form a fitting introduction to the practical
subjects mainly treated. The discourses are printed almost exactly as written;
and a wish to alter them as little as possible, has led to the retention of
some repetitions, which the author would doubtless have removed had he prepared
the volume for publication himself. In two of the discourses (V. and VII.)
there are allusions to circumstances more peculiarly affecting the Church and
Congregation with which he was connected, which have also been retained, as
furnishing examples of Dr. Candlish's manner of practically adapting his
interpretations of Scripture to the wants and duties of the
IN THE HEAVENLIES.
"In the heavenly places." - i. 20. "In heavenly places." - iii. 10. "In heavenly places." - EPH. i. 3. "In heavenly places." - ii. 6. " In high places." - vi. 12.
THE phrase is the same in all these passages. It is correctly rendered in one of them (i. 20). There is no reason for the omission of the article in the other four; nor for the marginal reading, "things," in the first; nor for the variation "high," instead of "heavenly," in the last. This change was probably occasioned by the notion that the expression denoted the ordinary places of residence of the evil spirits spoken of; which might be high, but could scarcely be heavenly. That notion, however, is a mistake. It is not a place of residence but a field of battle that is meant.
The phrase, then, is the same throughout; in the heavenly places; in the heavenlies. It is the keyword of this epistle. It is not to be found in any other epistle; nor indeed in any other part of Scripture. And here it occurs five times; or say four times; for two of the passages in which it occurs (i. 20 and ii. 6) may be regarded and reckoned as one. It stands in four different connections; and in all the four it denotes a place; an ideal locality; a sphere of action, experience, and discovery; a stage, or platform, or arena, on which different movements are going on, and different scenes of interest are enacted. The heavenly places, or the heavenlies, are opened up to us in four aspects;
first, as a blessed home (i. 3) ;
secondly, as a seat of lofty eminence (i. 20 and ii. 6);
thirdly, as a theatre, in which a spectacle or drama is exhibited to the rapt eyes of pure intelligences (iii. 10) ; and
fourthly, as a field, on which evil powers are to be met in fight (vi. 12).
The four may be classed under two heads ; the first and second bring out what your position is as regards yourselves; the third and fourth what it is as regards your relation to other beings.
PART FIRST (i. 3 ; i. 20 and ii. 6).
I. In the heavenlies you have a blessed home; a home in which you are greatly blessed, and bless him who blesses you (i. 3). You bless the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who blesses you with all spiritual blessings in him; all blessings of the Spirit in the full range and to the full extent of whatever element of blessedness the Spirit may bestow or convey. The blessings are the Spirit's. They are all such blessings as he may impart. And they are enjoyed in the heavenlies.
Outside of the heavenlies the Spirit beneficially works. He strives with men. He convinces, moves, persuades; if by any means you may be brought into the heavenlies; into the heavenly fold; into Christ, of whose fulness you may there receive. Vex not the Spirit, so dealing with you. Let him shut you up into the heavenlies, where he can bless you with all his own most precious blessings in Christ. In Christ! For all the Spirit's blessings, with which God blesses you in the heavenlies, are in Christ. Seven times over is this thought repeated in this glowing picture.
First, he has chosen you; chosen you to be the objects of his eternal, sovereign, pure, and holy love. It is in Christ that he has chosen you (ver. 4). Secondly, he has predestinated or appointed you unto the adoption of children to himself. It is by and in Jesus Christ that this sonship is reached and realised (ver. 5). Thirdly, you are accepted; not merely pitied, indulged, condoned; but received into favour; justified. You are accepted in the beloved (ver. 6). Fourthly, you have redemption; the full redemption his blood procures; forgiveness of sin, reaching to the full participation of all the rich grace in which God has abounded toward us so wondrously and so wisely. In Christ you have this redemption and this free forgiveness of sin (vers. 7, 8).In the fifth place, you become members of the great family, composed of all the faithful, in heaven and on earth, who are to be gathered into one, in Christ (ver. 10). In the sixth place, you obtain an inheritance, the inheritance of all things, in Christ. For if children, then heirs, heirs of God, and joint heirs with Christ (ver. 11). Lastly, you have a present seal and earnest of the inheritance; a foretaste of future glory. In Christ you have it, in whom, after that ye believed, ye were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise, which is the earnest of our inheritance, until the redemption of the purchased possession (v. 13, 14).
With such blessings of the Spirit in Christ does God bless you in the heavenlies. And you bless him, the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ; dwelling with him there as in a home; and partaking in some sense of his own blessedness, in the Son and by the Spirit.
II. The second view of the heavenlies raises you to even a higher eminence of spiritual life than the first contemplates. "He raised Christ from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places," "and hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus" (ii. 6). These two texts must be taken together; they are really one; as Christ and you are one. The first describes the position of Christ himself in the heavenlies; the second, your position there as one with him. God is represented as doing the very same thing, when, on the one hand, he puts forth his mighty power in raising Christ from the dead; and when, on the other hand, he raises you from your death in trespasses and sins. And he places you, upon your spiritual resurrection, where he set his risen Son, at his own right hand in the heavenlies.
Thus, the heavenlies undergo a sort of change or transfiguration. They become wonderfully high. Seen, at first by you, guilty and condemned, lost and perishing, they are a lowly refuge, a humble home; into which, by humbling yourself, you enter and are richly blessed. Struggling desperately in the deluge of wrath you see the heavenlies as a little ark, dimly visible in the gloom of a sunless day, with a strait, and low, and narrow door, through which you feel as if an unseen hand were forcing you in. But what a change seems to pass upon it! It expands. It rises. Not only does it float buoyant on the wide waste of waters; it ascends upwards. It is the palace of the Great King. There he sits on his throne. And beside him, at his right hand, sits his Son. And you in him sit there also, in the heavenlies.
Mark the steps of this great promotion.
1. God quickens you together with Christ (ii. 5). First, he quickens Christ himself (i. 20). He needed quickening, for he was dead. He took your death, your death in sin, as his. He died the criminal death of guilt contracted and wrath inflicted, which is your death. He took your condemnation on himself. And the first step towards his exaltation is his deliverance from that. And who may deliver him? Who but the Righteous Father to whose sentence he has bowed himself. And how shall he deliver him? By the exceeding greatness of his power. Yes, it is an exceeding great act or exercise of power! For it is not a mere omnipotent word that will here suffice. A summary undoing of the law's sentence, even in favour of this one singular bearer of the criminality and doom of its transgression, is out of the question. The law cannot be broken. Its sentence against all who come under its curse must take effect. And not till that sentence is executed and endured to the uttermost does its dark and heavy weight pass from the sufferer. Thus, and not otherwise, does God quicken Christ when he has drunk the cup; when he has died the death.
And thus also does he quicken you who are in Christ. For you are crucified with Christ. You partake with him in the penal death which he took upon himself. You make it your own in him. To you, therefore, as now to him, the bitterness of that death is past. There is now no condemnation to you who are in Christ. God quickens you together with him (ii. 5).
2. He.raises you up together. This is a step in advance of the former. It was so in the case of Christ himself. When God raised him up by his exceeding great power, the act, in the eye of law, meant more than the removal of the penal sentence of death which he had endured and exhausted. It implied a positive acknowledgment of him as the obedient servant. It was the owning of his perfect and finished righteousness. It was his justification. And it is yours in him. For you are raised up together. Not merely, negatively, is the sentence of that death removed from you ; but positively, a new sentence of life is passed upon you. You live anew in Christ. Raised up together with him, you are welcomed by God, his Father and your Father, his God and your God, as having not only the same deliverance from death, but the very same title to life, in the favour and fellowship of God, which, as your representative, Christ has made good for himself and you together.
3. As the result of his thus quickening you together with Christ, and raising you up together, God makes you sit together at his own right hand. There Christ himself is set in the heavenlies: and there you also sit with him in the heavenlies; at the right hand of God. What does this imply?
What blessed nearness to God! His right hand is the post of honour. More, and better than that, it is the seat of much gracious and loving intimacy and familiarity. To that Christ is promoted in your nature and for your sake. And you share his promotion in the heavenlies. Yes, thou who, when thou art bidden, wouldst go and sit down in the lowest room; to thee, he who bade, comes and says, "Friend, go up higher!" Abashed, ashamed, scarcely venturing to meet the eye of love that beams on thee so tenderly, thou hangest back. But look up. See who is there already in the place thou art invited to occupy! It is thine own Saviour, who loved thee and gave himself for thee; thine elder brother, who prayed, "Father, I will that they also whom thou hast given me be with me where I am." Then do not hesitate to go up higher; to rise more and more to a real practical apprehension of that nearness to God, the Holy One, which your sitting with Christ, at his right hand in the heavenlies, implies.
In this sitting with Christ at the right hand of God in the heavenlies, there is elevation above all created powers (i. 21). Over whatever.agency or influence, whether of earth or hell, might work him evil or cause him woe, Jesus, in the heavenlies, at the right hand of God is now exalted. No strife of tongues, no violence of hand, can touch him now. The contradiction of sinners against himself, the assaults of the devil and his angels, he leaves below him ; when quitting earth, he ascends into the heavenlies, and is set at the right hand of God.
And not only is he above them all, so as to be independent of them all : he has them all under his feet, so as to use them all as subordinate to himself and subservient to his ends. He is no longer buffeted amid the billows; he walks triumphant on the sea. All elements of creature power are at his disposal: all are subject to his dominion: all are available in his hands for his people's good. For, in this absolute sovereignty of his over all things, you virtually share. Sitting with Christ at the right hand of the Majesty on high, you sit very near the Father; close beside him, as it were; under the very eye of complacency with which he regards Christ, within the very embrace in which he clasps his Son to his bosom: and you sit above all else but God. All outward things you may command to be your ministers and servants in the Lord. Such is your position in the heavenlies; such its manifold blessedness; such its serene and sublime elevation at the right hand of the most high God.
Do you ask, "Where are the heavenlies, in which you are to be thus blessed and thus exalted?" Is it any*particular spot in creation that is meant? Or any special occurrence or occasion? Is it a holy city, a holy shrine, or a holy sepulchre, or a holy temple? Is it a holy rite, or ceremony, or sacrament? Is it a secluded cell, a hermitage, a cloister? Is it in any of these things that you are to recognise the heavenlies? Not certainly if what is included in the idea is your being blessed with all spiritual blessings in Christ, and sitting with him at the right hand of God. Certainly, these conditions are not secured by any of the expedients now named. But give me a broken heart; a broken and contrite spirit, trembling at God's word. And let that man tell me where the heavenlies are. Nay, I need not that he should tell me. He is himself what I am in search of. Wherever he is, there are the heavenlies; in his closet, his family, his shop, his office. For, in them all, he has in his inmost soul what is the essence of the heavenlies; Christ, and God in Christ, and a home of blessing beyond earth's troubles, and a life of elevation above the world's vanities and sins.
PART SECOND (iii. 10 ; vi. 12). Your being thus situated in the heavenlies thus blessed and thus exalted; naturally, as one may say, draws upon you the notice of other beings; of other intelligences, good and evil, who may be capable of understanding what is going on in the heavenlies.
III. "To the intent that now, unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places, might be known by the church the manifold wisdom of God" (iii. 10). The heavenlies now put on the aspect of a theatre, or place of exhibition, in the view of holy angels; the unfallen inhabitants of heaven. Let it be noted, however, that even here the phrase "in the heavenlies" does not refer to their place of abode, but to the seat of the scene or drama of which they are witnesses or spectators. They are the holy inmates of heaven. Their character as such appears in what they make of what they see. They see in it the manifold wisdom of God.
In the heavenlies, they see, as it were, a dramatic movement, illustrating the manifold wisdom of God. What can this movement mean but the history of the Church? Not its outer history of events merely, but its inmost history of spiritual experiences. In the heavenly places; not in courts and councils merely, though these need not be excluded, but in any two or three believers meeting together for prayer; in family devotions; in the secret and solitary closet; or on the highway and in the market-place; wherever and whenever intercourse is going on between God and a soul, blessed in Christ and exalted in Christ; there the angels are eager and sympathising onlookers. By the Church thus variously viewed, working out thus its purpose in the heavenlies, they have made known to them the manifold wisdom of God.
The Church, expanding and enlarging itself from small beginnings to most wide and comprehensive issues; the Church found in embryo, in the heart of the first martyr Abel, in the Ark, in Abraham; traced through the narrow channel of the Levitical economy; and now in apostolic times widening into a capacity for embracing all things in heaven and on earth; - the Church is the spectacle on which angels gaze. And very specially do they note in connection with it the fellowship of the mystery; the mysterious purpose of God to make themselves and us alike partakers in the one family bearing the blessed name of his Son. For that is the fellowship of the mystery. It is the purpose of God, from all eternity, to gather into one all things in Christ. It is involved in his creating all things by Christ. It is evolved, or unfolded, as time runs on, first more obscurely, in the earlier dispensations ; and then more clearly in the preaching of the Gospel. It is to be finally consummated and manifested at the glorious appearing of the Lord Jesus Christ; and the gathering together unto him of all the chosen and called and faithful from all creation.
No wonder that the Church, thus teeming in its womb with so vast a disclosure of the heart of God, should be the object of intensest interest to all the unfallen intelligences. They watch the progress of the divine plan; and all throughout, in the unrolling of the scroll of the Church's destiny, they have made known to them, by its means, in the heavenlies, the manifold wisdom of God. Yes! It is indeed manifold wisdom! It is manifold in the provision which it makes for harmonising what might seem to be incompatible claims in the moral government of God; the demands of justice, the yearnings of mercy, the standing of the innocent and holy, the salvation of the lost. It is manifold in its adaptation to all the exigencies of the world at large, and all the experiences of individual men. It is manifold in its falling in with the all but infinite varieties of thought and feeling and action, among communities and families and persons; while yet it absorbs them all in the great unity of its original design to found a great universal family for God, in which he may be glorified throughout eternal ages.
Is it indeed through the Church that this manifold wisdom of God is to be made known? And is it in the heavenlies? Ah, then, it is no wonder that the heavenlies on earth should attract and rivet the holy principalities and powers of heaven. What else, in all the ongoings of the wide universe, can have equal interest for them? They eagerly observe what is happening among the children of men. They watch the movements of society and the progress of the race. Domestic incidents, as well as public affairs, pass in review under their eyes. They are on the look-out for news. But it is not what strikes us as romantic or momentous, whether in the annals of family life or in the wars and politics of empires, that they pause to notice. It is what bears upon the Church of the living God that engrosses all their thoughts.
Is there anywhere, in some solitary chamber, or some dark and lone prison cell, a single sinner repenting? That chamber, that cell, is to the principalities and powers above, the heavenlies. There is joy in the presence of the angels of God over that one saved soul in these heavenlies. And as they rejoice, how do they delight to trace, in the dealings of providence and grace with that soul, there, in these poor heavenlies, the manifold wisdom of God! Is there a meek and humble saint of God breathing his last on a lowly sickbed, or amid the din of battle, in a dying testimony for the Saviour who loved him? Angels are watching these heavenly places, the pallet of straw, the cold wintry ground, waiting to carry the witnessing one to Abraham's bosom. And as they carry him, how do they desire to learn all the way by which the Lord led him through much tribulation unto glory, and to discover in it all new evidence and new illustration of the manifold wisdom of God! And as one after another is added to the Church of such as shall be saved; as trophy after trophy is gained for the cross of Christ; as things go on manifestly ripening for the judgments and the triumphs of the latter day; as they see the axe laid to the root of every tree which our heavenly Father hath not planted, and the wrath of man made to praise God, and crooked things made straight, and rough places plain, and a way being prepared for the coming of the Lord; as thus they witness, amid many vicissitudes, the advance of Christ's kingdom to its final victory; ah, what ever new and fresh emotions of grateful and adoring wonder must fill the bosoms of these pure and loving spirits, while in true and deepest sympathy with the Saviour and the saved alike, they discover through the Church, in the heavenlies, ever new and fresh instances, each more marvellous than what were before, of the wisdom, the truly manifold wisdom of God !
IV. "For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places". Still another change or metamorphosis befalls the heavenlies. Instead of a spectacle, there is a strife ; instead of an exhibition, a fight. The heavenlies now appear as a field of battle.
Paradise was once the heavenlies. The eyes of the pure angels were riveted on that spot. With interest wound up to the highest pitch, they watched the experiment of the garden. But alas, the eyes of fallen angels also were attracted thither. Satan sought and found an entrance into the heavenlies; disguised probably as an angel of light. He came; and paradise was gone.
The heavenlies, however, were again set up on the earth. This world was still to have in it what might furnish a platform, on which a refuge might be provided for the weary, needing to be blessed; on which a tower might be reared, rising and raising them to the very throne of God. Holy angels look on and sympathise, and rejoice to see the manifold wisdom of God. But the heavenlies now are not, any more than the heavenlies before the Fall, secure from the invasion of the spoiler and the foe. Consider the enemies you have to encounter; what they are in themselves, and what are the spheres of their energy and their influence.
In themselves, in point of rank and resources, they are principalities and powers; principalities in respect of rank; powers in respect of resources. Fallen as they are, they are principalities still. Defeated as they have been, they are still great as powers. As principalities they still assert a certain kind and measure of authority. As powers they are formidable for craft and might. Being both principalities and powers, they can not only command the earthlies, but keep up a stern fight in the heavenlies as well.
For there are these two fields of operation open to them: the world and its darkness on the one hand, and the heavenlies on the other. With reference to the first, the darkness of this world, they are represented as rulers, world-rulers. With reference to the second, the heavenlies, they are characterised as spiritual wickedness, wicked spirits, or the spiritualities of wickedness. There is a reciprocity or correspondence here. They are both principalities and powers in themselves; and they can therefore act in either capacity; as principalities asserting authority, or as powers using influence and force. And, accordingly, they have two very different spheres of activity. Of the darkness of this world they are rulers; and in that sphere therefore they may and do act as principalities. In the heavenlies they are intruders; and therefore there they can act only as powers. Mark well the distinction.
(1.) In the world, and amid its darkness, they act as principalities. They are the world-rulers of the dark and disordered system of things that now prevails among men. The manner of their rule is described in a previous passage - "Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience " (ii. 2). It is of a twofold sort. You once walked after the course of this world. When you did so you were really walking according to the course of this world's prince. As such, he is the prince of the power of the air. He has the control of this world's atmosphere. He has the making of it. And right skilfully does he compound it. Elements of good he mixes in it; good taste, good temper, good sense, good feeling, good fellowship, good faith. But, alas, it is only to dilute and disguise the fatal drug of ungodliness that makes the air so poisonous.
Who among you has not felt the poison? You go into worldly company. Nothing unbecoming shocks you; nothing vicious alarms you. All is pleasant, peaceful, and even profitable converse. But, alas,! when you have left the gay assembly, or the busy market-place, or the hall of science, or the festive board, or even the quiet fireside evening circle; when you have sought your closet, and opened your Bible, and gone down upon your knees; ah, have you not made the sad discovery that almost unconsciously, you can scarcely tell how, you have been drinking in and breathing an atmosphere unfavourable to prayer? Nor is this all. Not only does the enemy, as the prince of thepower of the air, thus subtilely adjust the atmosphere of worldly society. He works also among the children of disobedience. While they are breathing his atmosphere he is at work among them ; sliding up and down secretly in the crowd; insinuating evil thoughts; plying their evil hearts with congenial temptations. He does not simply trust to the soothing charm or exhilarating excitement of the air he has compounded. He is actively going ahout among you; stirring up in you thoughts of insubordination and rehellion; making you feel God's commandments to he grievous, an undue or unnecessary restriction upon your liberty ; kindling in you a longing for more of the freedom of independence and self-will; and so fostering in yon the temper and spirit of the children of disohedience.
(2.) But while thus the principalities of wickedness rule, and in a certain sense have a right to rule, over the darkness of this world, it might seem that the heavenlies ought to he beyond their reach. But no, that cannot be; at least not yet. They cannot indeed any longer rule over you in the heavenlies as principalities, hut they can invade your sanctuary as powers.
They follow you into your retreat. Resenting your escape from their dominion; bitterly grudging your being blessed by God and exalted with Christ in the heavenlies; they would fain scale the mountain of your hope and joy in the Lord. They will find ways of access into your most sacred and secret hiding-place; and, adapting themselves to the circumstances of your lot, and the varying frames and moods of your experience, they will become in the heavenlies spiritual wickedness, the very spiritualities of evil. Their temptations and assaults now are not carnal but spiritual. They become expert disputants about the very Word of God itself. They quote Scripture for their purpose. They pervert texts. They bring up nice questions about the deep and sacred things of God to confound you. They harass you with blasphemous suggestions. They malign God to you. They minister to you most plausibly, even out of the Scriptures, the materials either of presumption and spiritual pride, or of doubt and darkness and despair. But be ye strong in the Lord and in the power of his might. Take unto you the whole armour of God. Take unto you above all the shield of faith, whereby you may quench the fiery darts of the adversary, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God; praying always, with all prayer and supplication, in the Spirit. For practical application take the four views of the heavenlies together; and take them in pairs, two and two.
I. Consider what is your position in the heavenlies in respect of privilege and duty. What sort of blessings are there dispensed? According to what measure? There is nothing in the heavenlies of what the carnal mind seeks and welcomes; no mere impunity or indulgence or indiscriminative grace and favour to all creation. The blessings in the heavenlies are all spiritual. They are all such as the Spirit alone can make us partakers of; by a spiritual regeneration in us, and a spiritual work towards and upon us. They infer, on the part of God, a thoroughly complete gracious dealing with you; a thoroughly complete righting of your, state and condition in his sight; a very full and frank establishment of closest peace and confidence and love between him and you.
And so they are in harmony with the life to which God raises you in the heavenlies. That life is very high, and therefore very holy. It is a life of most intimate nearness to God, and of most absolute elevation above all else than God. It places you alongside of the risen Christ, sitting at the right hand of God. You see things from his point of view, as sitting with him there. You judge by his standard. Your heart is as his heart. Your home is with him in God, at God's right hand in the heavenlies. And in all you have to do with things outside of God and of you; in all your dealings with persons and principles that would assert dominion or exert influence over you; vindicate, on the contrary, your prerogative of command over them. You are not subject to them. They, in Christ, are subject to you. They are under your feet, as they are under Christ's.
II. Consider your position with reference to the other spiritual intelligences who take an interest in you and in your experience. On the one hand, is it not an animating and spirit-stirring thought that you live your spiritual life as forming part of that great divine drama by means of which, through the Church, the holy principalities and powers have made known to them in the heavenlies the manifold wisdom of God? Nor is the effect of this high thought diminished by the fact that over against these benevolent and sympathising onlookers from above, coming up from below, from the pit, a dark host is mustered by the prince of darkness; crowding all earthly scenes and circles, and invading even the heavenly places themselves. Be not unduly afraid of them. But be not ignorant of their devices. Especially remember always their double character.
They are the rulers of the darkness of this world. Beware of meeting them in their own domain, in the world of whose darkness they are the rulers. You may be tempted to sally forth out of your hiding-place in the heavenlies; to quit occasionally your high and peculiar position as the sons and daughters of the Lord God Almighty; not of the world, even as he in whom you are so called was not of the world; and for some good purpose, as you think, and under safe resolutions and precautions, to venture within the range of the worldly associations, the worldly principles and influences to which you were once in bondage. But beware. When the principalities and powers of evil find you thus in the world, as being of the world again they may claim you as their subjects, and assert their dominion over you. They have you at an advantage. Your only safety lies in flight. Betake yourselves again to the heavenlies. Enter into your closet and shut the door.
They may follow you even there, these principalities and powers, as spiritual wickedness. They may assail you in the heavenlies. But there you have the advantage over them. That is not their domain but your heavenly Father's, and yours as being his, in the Son and by the Spirit. No need of flight now. No room for flight. Only a call to stout and stern resistance. "Let God arise, and let his enemies be scattered. And let them that hate him flee before him."
Go To Chapter Two
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